Self-report to investigate metacognition growth in writing

Dina Ramadhanti (1) , Diyan Permata Yanda (2)
(1) Universitas PGRI Sumatera Barat, Indonesia ,
(2) UIN Sjech M. Djamil Djambek Bukittinggi, Indonesia


This study aims to describe the validity and reliability of the Metacognition Growth Questionnaire in writing. Using a quantitative approach, measurements were made of the metacognitive growth questionnaire, which was developed based on the metacognitive process theory, which consists of three, parts: the process of raising awareness, the process of monitoring/evaluating, and the process of controlling/regulating. A total of 30 students were randomly selected to be used as test subjects for the questionnaire instrument. The validity of the questionnaire items is known by using the bivariate product-moment correlation test. The reliability of the questionnaire is known by using Alpha Cronbach. The results showed that as many as 40 questionnaire items were declared valid, and overall, the questionnaire items were declared reliable. Thus, as many as 40 questionnaire items can be used to measure of students' metacognition growth in writing.

Full text article

Generated from XML file


Akyol, Z., & Garrison, D. R. (2011). Assessing Metacognitive in an Online of Inquiry. The Internet and Higher Education, 14(3), 183–190.

De Garcia, R., Reynolds, S., & Savignon, S. J. (1976). Foreign-Language Attitude Survey. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 32, 302–304.

Farahian, M. (2015). Assessing EFL Learners’ Writing Metacognitive Awareness. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 11(2), 39–51.

Farahian, M. (2017). Developing and validating a metacognitive writing questionnaire for EFL learners. Issues in Educational Research, 27(4), 736–750.

Faridah, F., Setyaningrum, R. R., & Falakha, E. N. (2022). Metacognitive Strategy to Enhance Students’ Reading Text-Ability: Case Study in the Vocational High School. Journal of Applied Studies in Language, 6(2), 199–205.

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring A New Area of Cognitive — Developmental Inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911.

Garrison, D. R., & Akyol, Z. (2015). Toward the Development of a Metacognition Construct for Communities of Inquiry. The Internet and Higher Education, 24(4), 66–71.

Goctu, R. (2017). Metacognitive Strategies in Academic Writing. Journal of Education in Black Sea Region, 2(2), 82–96.

Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive Instruction for Second Language Listening Development: Theory, Practice and Research Implications. RELC Journal, 39(2), 188–213.

Hacker, D. J., Keener, M. C., & Kircher, J. C. (2009). Writing is Applied Metacognition. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Handout of Metacognition in Education (pp. 154–172). Routledge.

Haris, K. R., Santangelo, T., & Graham, S. (2010). Metacognition and Strategies Instruction in Writing. In H. S. Waters & W. Schneider (Eds.), Metacognition, Strategies Use, & Instruction (pp. 226–256).

Horwitz, E. K. (1985). Using Student Beliefs About Language Learning and Teaching in the Foreign Language Methods Course. Foreign Language Annals, 18(4), 333–340.

Hu, Z., & Deng, Z. (2018). The Construct of Metacognition in the Processing of Translation Problems and its Measurement. Topic in Education, Culture, and Social Development (TECSD), 1(1), 76–78.

Ikram, Z. J. W., & Aziz, N. (2017). Kegiatan Metakognitif dalam Pemecahan Masalah Matematika. In Usman, A. Ismail, Nursalam, Z. J. W. Ikram, N. Hardianti, I. H. Islail, H. Sultan, & H. Usman (Eds.), Prosiding Seminar Nasional “TELLU CAPPA” (Issue September, pp. 810–820). Badan Penerbit Universitas Negeri Makasar.

Iwai, Y. (2011). The Effects of Metacognitive Reading Strategies: Pedagogical Implications for EFL/ESL Teachers. The Reading Matrix, 11(2), 150–159.

Maftoon, P., Birjandi, P., & Farahian, M. (2014). Investigating Iranian EFL learners’ Writing Metacognitive Awareness. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 3(5), 37–51.

Magiera, M. T., & Zawojweski, J. S. (2011). Characterizations of Social-Based and Self-Based Contexts Associated With Students ’ Awareness , Evaluation , and Regulation of Their Thinking During Small-Group Mathematical Modeling. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 42(5), 486–520.

Mauro, C., Gomes, A., & Golino, H. F. (2014). Self-Reports on Students’ Learning Processes are Academic Metacognitive Knowledge. Psychology, 27(3), 472–480.

Mokhtari, K., & Reichard, C. A. (2002). Assessing Students’ Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 249–259.

Pedone, R., Semerari, A., Riccardi, I., Procacci, M., Nicolo, G., & Carcione, A. (2017). Development of a Self-Report Measure of Metacognition: The Metacognition Self-Assessment Scale (MSAS), Instrument Desciption and Factor Structure. Clinic Neuropsychiatri, 14(3), 185–194.

Ramadhanti, D. (2020). Proses Psikologis-Kognitif Mahasiswa dalam Menulis. Disertasi. Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang.

Ramadhanti, D., Ghazali, A. S., Hasanah, M., & Harsiati, T. (2019). Students’ Metacognitive Weaknesses in Academic Writing: A Preliminary Research. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 14(11), 41–57.

Ramadhanti, D., Ghazali, A. S., Hasanah, M., Harsiati, T., & Yanda, D. P. (2020). The Use of Reflective Journal as a Tool for Monitoring of Metacognition Growth in Writing. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(11), 162–187.

Ramadhanti, D., & Yanda, D. P. (2021). Students’ Metacognitive Awareness and Its Impact on Writing Skill. International Journal of Language Education, 5(3), 193–206.

Riduwan. (2007). Skala Pengukuran Variabel-Variabel Penelitian.

Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing Metacognitive Awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19(4), 460–475.

Sugiyono. (2009). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan: Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D.

Tawarik, O., Ikhsanudin, Wajdi, M., & Latip-Yusoph, S. (2021). Effect of CALLA Metacognitive Strategy Instruction on Reading Comprehension and Reading Awareness. Journal of Applied Studies in Language, 5(2), 309–319.

Tobias, S., & Everson, H. (2000). Assessing Metacognitive Knowledge Monitoring. In G. Schraw & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Issue in the Measurement of Metacognition (pp. 147–222).


Dina Ramadhanti
d[email protected] (Primary Contact)
Diyan Permata Yanda
Ramadhanti, D., & Yanda, D. P. (2023). Self-report to investigate metacognition growth in writing. Journal of Applied Studies in Language, 7(1), 75–85. (Original work published June 26, 2023)

Article Details

No Related Submission Found